|political system:||protectorate of France|
|population:||1.0 mil (1951)|
|area:||2 568 km2|
|official languages:||German, French|
The coal reserves in the Saar were the basis of a strong industrial development of this German border region. As part of the forced disarmament of Germany after World War I, the Treaty of Versailles assumed separation of Saar from Germany for 15 years and moving it under the administration of the League of Nations, but in fact France. After the period of grace, in 1935, the results of the plebiscite resulted in the return of the Saar to the motherland, and the local industry immediately supported the expansion of the German war machine. German defeat in another World War has awakened again the French appetite for the acquisition of this rich region. The United States followed the French proposal and in 1946, again the Saar was separated from Germany and a protectorate administered by France was formed. France using tolerant politics was gradually merging Saar politically and economically with the rest of the state, but the Federal Republic of Germany categorically demanded the Saar back. France did not want to destroy relations and signed the Luxembourg Agreement, which assumed the return of the Saar to Germany on January 1, 1957. Saarland has become then the eleventh state of the federation.
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